Boudhanath was built in the 14th century and after the arrival of Tibetans following in the year 1959, this stupa has been the center place of the Tibetan Buddhism. Today it is a place for medication, pilgrimage, and a popular tourist site. From the top, Bouddhanath stupa looks like a giant mandala. In all the Tibetan mandalas, four of the Dhyani Buddhas mark the cardinal points, with the fifth, Vairocana, enshrined in the center (in the white hemisphere of the stupa). The five Buddha represents the five elements (earth, water, fire, air, and ether) which are represented in the stupa's architecture.It is believed that the nine levels of Bouddhanath Stupa represent the mythical Mt. Meru, the center of the cosmos. and the 13 rings from the base pinnacle symbolize the path to enlightened or "Bodhi"- the stupa's name. The bottom of the stupa is surrounded with irregular 16-sided walls. Bouddhanath is also closely related to Bodhisattva Avalokiteshvara (Padmapani), whose 108 forms are depicted in sculptures around the base. The mantra of Avalokiteshvara - Om Mani Padme Hum - is carved on the prayer wheels beside the images of Avalokiteshvara around the base of the stupa.