Boudhanath was built in the 14th century and after the arrival of Tibetans following in the year 1959, this stupa has been the center place of the Tibetan Buddhism. Today it is a place for medication, pilgrimage, and a popular tourist site. From the top, Bouddhanath stupa looks like a giant mandala. In all the Tibetan mandalas, four of the Dhyani Buddhas mark the cardinal points, with the fifth, Vairocana, enshrined in the center (in the white hemisphere of the stupa). The five Buddha represents the five elements (earth, water, fire, air, and ether) which are represented in the stupa's architecture.It is believed that the nine levels of Bouddhanath Stupa represent the mythical Mt. Meru, the center of the cosmos. and the 13 rings from the base pinnacle symbolize the path to enlightened or "Bodhi"- the stupa's name. The bottom of the stupa is surrounded with irregular 16-sided walls.
Bouddhanath is also closely related to Bodhisattva Avalokiteshvara (Padmapani), whose 108 forms are depicted in sculptures around the base. The mantra of Avalokiteshvara - Om Mani Padme Hum - is carved on the prayer wheels beside the images of Avalokiteshvara around the base of the stupa.Next come two circular plinths supporting the hemisphere of the stupa, symbolizing water. As at Swayabunath, Bodnath is topped with a square tower bearing the omnipresent Buddha eyes on all four sides. Instead of a nose, there is a question mark which is a symbol of one in Nepali and it symbolizes unity and the one way to enlightenment in the Buddhist teaching. The third eye symbolizes the teaching of Buddha.
Prayer flags tied to the stupa flutter in the wind, carrying mantras and prayers heavenward. The main entrance to the upper platform of Bodnath Stupa is on the north side. Here Amoghasiddhi, the progenitor of the future Buddha, presides. Below Amoghasiddhi is the Buddha Maitreya, the future Buddha.One can take a walk around the stupa which is buzzing with energy. The butter lamp is burnt here to send wishes or prayer. It is the perfect place to look for a souvenir and one can observe all the activities around the stupa by sitting on the rooftop restaurants with a coffee in their hand.It is situated 8 km east of the Kathmandu and can be seen at the very moment one land on the Tribhuvan Airport. This 36-meter high stupa is one of the largest stupas in the Kathmandu valley and in South-Asia. There are countless monasteries surrounding the stupa. Visit Bouddhanath once and let it leave a mark in your memory.